Slavery Going On Today In World Essay, Research Paper
Library assignment 1
Slavery is an issue Americans wish is still apart of our past. However it is still taking place in many countries around the world. One of these many countries is Sudan. Sudan is a fairly large country located in northeast Africa. In Sudan women and children are still the result of slavery.
In order to understand the current conditions of Sudan, the history is very important. In 632, the beginning of Islam brought many positive things to the country such as political unity and economic growth. However, as early as 1839 the northern Arabs began raiding the villages taking African Americans into slavery. The slaves were then sold in world slave markets as well as being domestic slaves. In 1881 the Turkish-Egyptian control diminished when Mahdist revolted. Mandi rule was between 1885 and 1898 when slavery flourished. However, the Sudan was recaptured by the Anglo-Egyptians in 1898. Official slave trade was abolished but domestic trade continued. When Sudan was under the Anglo-Egyptian rule the northern part of Sudan and the southern part of Sudan was governed under different rule. The Arab-Islamic influence was in the south. Sudan regained its independence in 1956, but the two different states had many differences. These differences were history, culture, race, geography, and religion. These differences led to a Civil War in 1956.
In the Sudan Civil Wars, it is simply the north verses the south. The north is Muslim with an Arab heritage, whereas, the south is Christian and an African heritage. The Arab heritage has always treated the south as thought they were a minority. Also, the south has been isolated from the north by its geography. The south?s geography has prevented them from participating in the country?s political, economic, and social life.
Islam points of view are strong in the northern part of Sudan where the southern area is mostly absent of Islamic views. In 1983 President Nimeiri imposed that the entire country to follow the Sharia law (Islamic law by Islamic beliefs). The current Khartoum government wants the southern area to follow Sharia law. Since the Christian south had many slave raids by Arabs from the north and the east, therefore, resisting Muslim religious rule. The southerners want total separation, federation, or a unified secular state with freedom for all minorities. This south?s struggle for separation led to two civil wars, the first ending in 1972 with a proposed federation. That solution dissolved into a second war in the mid-1980s, which is still continuing.
War has affected the traditional systems for the protection of women?s rights, and the treatment of women and girls has become worse. Population has increased prostitution, rape, and sexually transmitted diseases. Female children are forced into early marriages, and child labor.
There are generally two different types of slavery, old slavery and new slavery. Old slavery has the following characteristics: legal ownership, high purchase cost, low profits, shortage of slaves, long term relationships with slaves, and large ethnic differences. New slavery, however, has the following characteristics: no legal ownership, low purchase cost, surplus of potential slaves, and short-term relationships. Sudan has established a slavery system most similar to new slavery. Sudan has a large amount of potential slaves from the south, and a fairly low purchase cost. Also, the ownership is not legal.
Slavery has always flourished in the South because it was considered beyond Cairo?s control. Annual raids would take place where thousands of southerners would become slaves. This destructed the south?s? region, stability, and economy. In 1993,the International Labor Organization surveyed forced labor and slavery-like practices around the world and noted that the practice of traditional slavery was growing in Sudan. The International Labor Organization said it had received the first detailed reports on the revival of Sudanese slavery in 1988, complete with allegations that the government had provided arms to unofficial militia groups so that they could raid Dinka villages and remove support for the rebels. Soldiers from the north would capture women, children, and men from the south and force them to work without pay, force sex upon them, and were owned by the capturer until they were sold.
The local community had detailed records of 634 women and children who had been enslaved. Cal Bombay of the Canadian organization Crossroads and Dr Anne Zimmerman of CSW-USA helped to free the 325 slaves; many of the slaves gave interviews with details of their experiences during enslavement. 309 are believed to still be enslaved. Arrangements have been made to help with the emancipation of those still in captivity. Attempts have been made to estimate how many slaves are still enslaved from Sudan; the least amount of slaves is estimated at 100,000.
In April 1996, UN Special Representative for the Sudan, Gaspar Biro, reported “an alarming increase…in cases of slavery, servitude, slave trade, and forced labor.” Other countries to stop these acts of slavery have done little. In June 1996, two reporters from the Baltimore Sun illegally visited Sudan. They then wrote many articles, which described the acts of slavery that they saw. After these articles an increasing number of missions began by Christians.
In June of 1999, Christian Solidarity Worldwide visited locations in southern Sudan to help in medical problems, to gain evidence in the violation of human rights, and to teach the word of God. In the Nuba Mountains they met 60,000 children orphaned by their government. They were captured and put in ?Peace camps? which were holding places for the slaves. They were beat and burned.
Civilians were forced to believe in Muslim beliefs; anyone who didn?t was enslaved or killed. Many slaves were forced to fight for the Muslims against the South. The southerners were put at the front line so they were the first to die during a battle.
Northerners would take women and young girls from there home and bring them with them and force them to have sex with many different soldiers. They would also force them to cook, and do other domestic chores. Many Christian organizations have tried to free slaves. They have been offering fifty dollars per slave, and then they free the slave. Unfortunately, the slave capturers have been capturing more slaves since this was put in effect in order to make a large amount of money. This plan is freeing the slave but putting more money in the north instead of the south.
Although American slavery is a thing of the past, it is still ongoing in places like Sudan. Even though it is unlike the old slavery, it is an unjust violation of their rights. In conclusion, slavery is perhaps one of the most evil things that still go on in our ?civilized? society. Many countries like Sudan are forced under slavery by their government. Slavery exists because of the past, and until the world tries to stop all of slavery it will still exist.