Skiing Essay, Research Paper
Types of Skiing
In Downhill skiing, competitors take a ?set course from start to finish.? They take turns racing and each run is timed. The person with the fastest time wins. Downhill racers use ski poles to pick up speed at the start and for balance when they take turns. They try to keep there skis as close as possible to the snow. As he leaves the starting gate he activates an automatic timing mechanism. Downhill racing is the fastest Alpine ski racing sport. Champion skiers reach speeds of over 90 miles per hour on the steep, strait parts of the course. The turns call for immense skill and powerful muscles. Taking tuns at fast speeds puts a lot of stress on the legs. The racers use helmets for protection, because falling at high speeds can be very dangerous. The sport needs a great deal of courage. The good thing about it is that it is probably the most exciting ski event ever. Large bumps called moguls, and steep pitches add to the hazards. The course ranges from about 1 and a half to 3 miles long. The fastest recorded speed for a man on skis is 129.827 miles per hour. The fastest recorded speed for a woman is 124.759 miles per hour. Both records were achieved at Lees Acres, France, in April 1984.
In slalom competitors race downhill through a series of gates represented by pairs of poles. The flags on the gates are either red or blue. There are three types of events: Slalom, Giant Slalom, and Super-G. Slalom has many gates and tight turns. Giant Slalom has fewer gates and wider turns. Super-G is a combination of Giant Slalom and downhill racing.
Getting through the gates of a slalom course calls for great balance and skill. Races are won on the fastest time, as in downhill, but if a gate is missed or taken wrongly it means disqualification of the racer. Olympic slalom events require a course to have a vertical drop of at least 650 feet from the beginning to the finish.
Cross Country skiing requires great stamina. The standard courses range from 3 to 30 miles and some are even longer. There are fewer sharp turns or steep slopes than there are in Alpine racing. In a biathlon competitors make stops to shoot at targets. They carry their rifles strapped to their backs as they progress from target to target areas. Time penalties are given for missed targets.
The big marathons are held in Europe and in North America. Anyone can take part, from competitors to beginners.
Ski poles play an important part in cross country skiing. The skier uses the poles to help with the rhythm necessary to keep up a consistent pace and help to propel forward. The champion Nordic skiers average about 12 miles per hour. Like long distance runners, they go into a rhythmic stride.
Out of all the snow sports, ski jumping is the most spectacular. The fearless competitors take off from huge ramps and soar through the air before landing as much as 330 feet away. There are two ski jumping events, the 70m and the 90m. These are not the height of the ramps, but how far you are expected to jump. Points are awarded for style as well as for distance. A ski jumper crouches to gather up speed as he goes down the [in run] of a ski tower. The position in the air is important, and is judged on steadiness and control. Ski jumping is probably the oldest form of skiing. Skis used for ski jumping are heavier, longer, and wider than Alpine skis.
Top Ten Ski Resorts
Killington is the largest ski resort in the Eastern United States. It has six peaks referred to as separate mountains: Sunrise Mountain, Bear Mountain, Sky Peak, Killington Peak, Snowdon Mountain, and Ramshead Mountain. All these Mountains can be skied by skiers of all levels of ability and it is easy for skiers to move from one mountain to the next. Considering how big Killington is there are eighteen lifts: six double chairlifts, four triple chairlifts, five quad chairlifts, two surface lifts, and one Gondola. The Gondola that they have is three and a half miles long, which is the longest the longest in North America. Killington?s total skiable area is seven-hundred and twenty-one acres with a vertical drop of three-thousand, one-hundred and sixty feet. Killington has one-hundred and seven runs. Of these runs, 45% are beginner runs, 20% are intermediate, and 35% are advanced. Killington?s longest trails are Juggernaut, Timberline, and Cascade, which are all about ten miles long. Killington?s average monthly temperatures during the season are: 28 degrees in November, 26 degrees in December, 17 degrees in January, 16 degrees in February, 26 degrees in March, and 34 degrees in April.
One of Snowbird?s best features is its easy access. Snowbird is only thirty-one miles away from Salt Lake International Airport. The airport has seven buses daily that take people to Snowbird, They also have eight car rental agencies. Snowbird is a great mountain to ski on. They have wide open runs that have, moguls, power, or just plain steep runs. Snowbird has an unbelievable 1,900 acres of skiable terrain and has a total lift capacity of 8,810 skiers per hour. The base is about 8,100 feet and the top of the tram is about 11,000. This provides a vertical drop of about 2,900 feet. The mountain is serviced by eight chairlifts: one aerial tram, and seven double chairlifts. Crowding is usually not a problem at Snowbird even though it is close to a major city. There is not much crowding because there are a lot of other ski resorts in that area. It must also be noted that Snowbird is not an easy mountain. The beginner and intermediate runs that they have are harder than at other resorts. Snowbird receives about 550 inches of snow annually. Its monthly snowfall is: Sixty-five inches in November, seventy-six inches in January, eighty-four inches February, one-hundred and seven inches in March, and seventy-five inches in April. The longest beginner run is Big Emma at 550 feet long. The longest intermediate run is Chips Run at two miles long. The longest advanced run is Silver Fox at about 1.7 miles long.
Steamboat has four peaks that are available to ski on: Thunderhead Peak, Storm Peak, Sunshine Peak, and South Peak. These peaks are 3,600 feet vertical, the second highest in Colorado. The base elevation is about 6,900 feet and Steamboat?s highest peak is 10,500 feet. There are 2,500 skiable acres and over fifty miles of trails. Steamboat is served by twenty lifts that are: one eight passenger gondola, one quad chairlift, seven triple chairlifts, nine double chairlifts, and two ski school lifts. The longest beginner run is Why Not at three miles. The longest intermediate run is High noon at two and a half miles. The longest advanced run is Shadows at just under one mile long. Their annual snowfall is 325 inches. Their monthly snowfall is: 27 inches in November, 71 inches in December, 63 inches in January, 56 inches in February, 57 inches in March, and 20 inches in April. Average monthly temperatures during a season are: 28 degrees in November, 18 degrees in December, 15 degrees in January, 18 degrees in February, 26 degrees in March, and 38 degrees in April. Steamboat is an easier mountain as Snowbird is a harder mountain. In other words, Steamboat does not have as many runs that are intimidating. They do not even have one double-black diamond to ski on. This Mouton is more of a family Mountain than anything else. However, the expert runs are not wimpy. The will challenge the expert, and in the right snow conditions (Powder), the may be among the best in Colorado.
Sun Valley, Idaho
Sun Valley, like Aspen, has two mountains: Baldy Mountain, and Dollar Mountain. Dollar Mountain is about two miles away from ?Badly.? Shuttle buses run every 15 minutes between both mountains. Shuttle services start about a half an hour before the lifts open and run until half an hour after the lifts close. Dollar Mountain is considered primarily a teaching mountain. It is pretty small, easy, and there is not a single tree on that mountain. Dollar?s base is about 6,010 feet and its summit is at 6,638 feet, giving it a vertical drop of 628 feet. The entire mountain consists of only 127 acres with uphill lift service for 5,000 skiers per hour. Bald Mountain is a classic ski mountain, and it is the mountain for which Sun Valley is most famous for. Baldy has all the elements’ skiers of all ability look forward to when skiing. There are gentle rolling slopes, steep runs, mogul trails, and bowls filled with deep powder. Baldy?s base is 5,750 feet, the lowest of any Resort located in the Rocky Mountains. Its summit is 9,150 feet giving it a vertical drop of 3,400 feet. Sun Valley?s Mountain snow fall is: 36? in Nov., 60? in Dec., 100? in Jan., 115? in Feb., and 100? in Mar.. Average monthly temperatures during a season are: 32 degrees in Nov., 21 degrees in Dec., 19 degrees in Jan., 24 degrees in Feb., and 31 degrees in Mar.
Taos is pretty much a mountain for expert skiers. 51% of the mountain?s runs are expert runs, only 25% are intermediate, and 24% are beginner. The elevation of Taos at its summit is 11,819 feet. With its base at 9,207 feet, the vertical drop is 2,612 feet. The longest beginner run is Whitefeather at 3.1 miles long. The longest intermediate run is Honeysuckle at 5.25 miles long. The longest expert run is Longhorn at just a little over 2 miles. Taos is the kind of mountain where it is either snowing a lot or it is clear skies. They get over 323 inches of snow annually, it?s monthly average is: 40? in Nov., 36? Dec., 58? in Jan., 37? in Feb., 63? in Mar., and 39? in Apr. The average monthly temperatures at the base of the mountain are: 27 degrees in Nov., 21 degrees in Dec., 22 degrees in Jan., 28 degrees in Feb., 32 degrees in Mar., and 39 degrees in Apr..
By anyone?s definition Telluride is a great mountain. Located in Uncompahgre National Forest deep in the San Jan mountains, it?s trails offer terrain for skiers of every skill level. Telluride mountain has 3,155 vertical feet. Its base is at 8,735 feet and its summit is at 11,890 feet. They have 735 acres of skiable terrain and it is serviced by: 1 detachable quad chairlift, 6 double chairlifts, 2 triple chairlifts, and 1 Poma lift. The longest beginner run is Tellyride trail, and the lift that takes you to that run is the world?s detachable quad chairlift at 2.85 miles long. The longest intermediate run is See Forever, and the longest advanced run is The Plunge. In total, there are 45 trails of which 24% are beginner, 50% intermediate, and 26% are advanced. Telluride?s annual snowfall is 300 inches. It?s monthly snowfall is: 20? in Nov., 53? in Dec., 50? in Jan., 37? in Feb., and 66? in Mar..
Three mountains comprise Breckenridge ski area: Peak 8, Peak 9, and Peak 10. From a base of 9,600 feet to a summit of 12,213 feet, there are 2613 vertical feet of wonderful skiing. All the mountains are interconnected by fifteen lifts that include 3 quads, 1 triple chairlift, nine double chairlifts, and two surface lifts. The Resorts uphill lift capacity is 22,650 skiers per hour. Breckenridge is a large Resort: there are more than 1,480 skiable acres, consisting of 107 trails. 23% of the trails are easy, 28% are intermediate, and 49% are expert. The longest run on peak 8 is a beginner run that is named 4 O?clock and is 3 miles long. Centennial and Crystal are the longest intermediate runs each at 1.3 miles long. The longest expert run is Cimarron at two-thirds of a mile. Breckenridge?s annual snowfall is about 320?. There average monthly snowfall is: 36? in Nov., 31: in Dec., 32? in Jan., 45? in Feb., 58? in Mar., and 54? in Apr. Average monthly temperatures are: 26 degrees in Nov., 21 degrees in Dec., 21 degrees in Jan., 23 degrees in Feb., 29 degrees in Mar., and 34 degrees in Apr.
Like Snowbird, Aspen mountain has easy access. Aspen is only 200 miles away from the major city, Denver. It is also easy to make it to Aspen by air. United Express and Continental Express offer quick service from Denver?s Stapleton International Airport to Aspen. Aspen mountain is different form any other mountain in this report. It is one of only two mountains that does not have any beginner runs (the other is Sun Valley). It may also be the only mountain the majority of the trails are short. Located in the White River National Forest, Aspen Mountain has over 23 mails of trails. Of these trails 35% are intermediate trails, 35% are black diamond, and 30% are double black diamond. The base elevation is 7,945 feet and its summit is 11,212 feet. This gives the skier 3,267 vertical feet of skiing. This resort has: 1 Gondola, 1 quad superchair, 2 fixed grip quads, and 4 double chairlifts. Aspen?s uphill lift capacity is 10,775 skiers per hour. Compared to other mountains, Aspen receives annual snowfall of about 30 inches. It?s average monthly snowfall is: 34? in Nov., 52? in Dec., 40? in Jan., 51? in Feb., and 66? in Mar. It does not seem as that is a lot of snow, it is not. They get a lot of their snow from snow-making machines.
Vail Mountain is one of the greatest ski mountains in North America. By anyone?s definition, Vail Mountain is BIG, consisting of 12,500 acres of which 3,787 acres are developed trails. Vail is the largest single ski area in America. The developed trails total 102 runs, the longest being Riva Ridge at three miles. Vail has a base elevation of 8,150 feet and rose to 11,250 feet at its summit. This equates to a 3,100 foot vertical drop. This terrain is serviced by the following lift equipment: Gondola, 1 high speed enclosed quadruple chairlift, 5 high-speed detachable chairlifts, 1 fixed-grip chairlift, 3 triple chairlifts, 9 double chairlifts, and 2 surface lifts.
Vail, with its excellent mix of terrain offer’s challenge and excitement to skiers of all ability levels. The front face of the mountain consists of 32% beginner trails, 31% intermediate trails, and 32% are expert runs. The back side of the mountain consists of four bowls, three of which are either advanced or intermediate depending on the snow conditions.
Vail Mountains receives an annual snow fall of about 300-350 inches. It?s average monthly snow fall is: 60? in November, 62? in December, 62? in January, 54? in February, 65? in March, and 34? in April. The average daily temperatures during the season are: 28 degrees in November, 21 degrees in December, 20 in January, 23 in February , 28 in March, and 35 degrees in April.
Jackson Hole, Wyoming
Jackson Hole is located in the Bridger Teton National Forest. The ski area is one of the largest in North America and has over 4 square miles of skiable terrain. The lower mountain, where all the beginner and most of the intermediate runs are, is called Apres? Vous. Right next to Apres? Vous is Rendezvous Mountain. Rendezvous is where Jackson Hole?s difficult runs are. The mountains have: 6 beginner trails, 26 intermediate trails, and 25 expert trails. Jackson Hole has the following lifts: 1 Aerial tram, 1 quad chairlift, 1 triple chairlift, 5 double chairlifts, and 1 high speed poma.
The longest beginner?s run is Eagle?s Nest. It is 2,062 feet long. The longest intermediate run is Gros Ventre. It is 1.4 miles long. The longest expert run is Rendezvous Bowl at 2,700 feet.
Jackson Hole?s yearly snowfall is: 108? in November, 84? in December, 84? in January, 96? in February, and 48? in March. Jackson Hole is a big mountain. Its base elevation is 6,311 feet and the elevation of the summit is 10,450 feet. A vertical drop of 4,139 feet gives skiers the most vertical feet of skiing of any major United States ski resort.
Proper ski equipment plays a major role for those wishing to hit the slopes. The type of equipment needed depends on the kind of skiing the individual wished to perform. Different equipment is needed for different types of skiing. The beginner will use a far different type of binding, for instance, than the experienced downhill skier.
Competitors and Cross Country skiers need more advanced equipment geared specifically to that sport. Also, clothing plays a major role as a skier who is unprepared for freezing conditions and possible high winds can suffer from frostbite or even worse.
When buying skis check that they are not damaged in any way and that the running base is smooth and flat. The shovel plays a big part in turning, it flexes and leads the skier around. The narrowest part of the ski is the waist. The waist is where you place your boot. The ski is arched, or has a Camber to support the waist and to control different forces you might put on it. Without a skier the ski would only touch the snow at two points – the shovel and the tail. The tail is tipped up to reduce possible damage.
It is really simple to find out how long you want your ski to be. You want your ski to be about the same height as you are.
Aside from their part in attaching the skier to the ski and inducing the right forward lean, ski boots must feel comfortable. Ski boots need adjustment to keep the right fit throughout the day. Make sure your toes are not pushed tightly against the front of your boot and that the heel of the foot is not kept down. When strapping your boot on keep your heel down. Your ankle must be free to bend, allowing you to go into the forward lean position.
Ski binding are probably the most complicated item of your ski equipment. If they are not perfectly adjusted you will find out that your skis will be coming off all the time, or will fail to come off when they should, which could lead to a bad accident.
The bindings have two main parts: a toe piece and a heel piece. Although it can vary , the toe piece normally releases under sideways pressure and the heel piece under forward and upward pressure. Some bindings have a heel pivot so the whole heel binding swivels to release the boot. The toe piece is a spring-loaded gadget made to release your boot when the forces on your leg build up to a dangerous level.
Built as much for balance as for turning skis, ski poles must be the correct length. When you are holding your poles they should be at elbow length. Plastic baskets are at the end of your poles. The baskets normally have at least one hole in them so that you can stick the other pole?s tip threw it to have an easier way to carry your poles. Lost baskets should be replaced as soon as possible.
Whatever type of ski gear you use, remember to wear ski clothing in layers. Make sure your gear is warm, windproof, and waterproof.
The ski jacket should be wind and waterproof. Look for strong zippers covered with flaps and drawstrings for durability. Gloves should be large enough to let the fingers move and thick enough to keep the fingers warm. Make sure the cuffs go over the wrists and the palms have extra padding.
Goggles give protection to the eyes against the cold, the snow, or sunlight. Keep them in your jacket when you are not using them to avoid getting them scratched or lost.
Ski pants or ?bibs? should have straps that feel comfortable over your shoulders. They should also feel snug but not too tight around your waist. They should have pockets and also be waterproof and windproof.
Weber, Robert E. The Greatest Ski Resorts in America, Dallas, Texas; Guide Book Publishing Co., 1988.
Walter, Claire The Best Ski Resorts in America, New York, New York; Randt and Company, Inc., 1988.
Bartelski, Konrad + Neilands, Robin Learn Downhill Skiing in a Weekend, Toronto; Daring Kindersley Limited, 1991.
Markels, Alex ?Travel Watch,? Snow Country, March/April,? page 37.
Skiing.? Comton?s, 1992 page 311-314.
Barritt, Norman Snow Sports, New York, New York; Franklin Watts, 1987.
By: Bryan Colter