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Fredrick Douglas Essay, Research Paper

Adam Conners

Adam Conners


Frederick Douglas

The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave was written

by Frederick

Douglass himself. He was born into slavery in Tuckahoe, Maryland in approximately

1817. He has,

” no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing

it” (47). He

became known as an eloquent speaker for the cause of the abolitionists. Having himself

been kept as a

slave until he escaped from Maryland in 1838, he was able to deliver very impassioned

speeches about

the role of the slave holders and the slaves. Many Northerners tried to discredit his tales,

but no one was

ever able to disprove his statements.

Frederick Douglass does offer a biased review of slavery, as he was born into it,

yet even in his

bias he is able to detect and detail the differences in the slave holders cruelty and that to

which he was

subjected. From being whipped and humiliated daily, “a very severe whipping for being


(101), to being able to find his own work and save some money, “I was able to command

the highest

wages given to the most experienced calkers” (134), he is able to give the reader a more

true picture of

slavery. His poignant speeches raised the ire of many Northerners, yet many still felt the

slaves deserved

their position in life. Douglass, for his own safety, was urged to travel to England where

he stayed and

spoke until 1847 when he returned to the U.S. to buy his freedom. At that point, he began

to write and

distribute an anti-slavery newspaper called “The North Star”. Not only did he present

news to the slaves,

but it was also highly regarded as a good source of information for those opposed to


During the Civil war, Douglass organized two regiments of black soldiers in

Massachusetts to

fight for the North. Before, during and after the war he continued his quest to free all the

slaves. He

became known as a fair and righteous man and was appointed as the U.S. Minister of Haiti

after holding

several government offices.

Frederick Douglass has woven many themes into his narrative, all being tied with a


thread of man s inhumanity towards man. Children were uprooted from the arms of their


“before the child has reached it s twelfth month, it s mother is taken from it” (48) and sold

to other slave

holders. Brutal whippings occurred for even the smallest imagined offense, “a mere look,

word, or

motion” (118), women were treated as no better than common concubines and the slaves

were forced into

living quarters, “on one common bed cold, damp floor” (55) worse than some of the

farm animals. The

slaves were not allowed even the most meager portion of food, “eight pounds of pork and

one bushel of

corn meal” (54) to last a month. Clothes were scarce and illness was never tolerated. It

was unthinkable

for the slaves to practice any type of religion, hold any gatherings, become literate to any


“unlawful unsafe, to teach a slave to read” (78) or even make the simple decision of

when to eat and


One of the themes that the book dealt with is society and it s handling of slavery

under the guise

of Christianity. Those who professed to being the most Christian i.e., the minister who

lived next door,

was actually the most cruel. Douglass stated adamantly that religion was, “a mere

covering for the most

horrid of crimes, — justifier of barbarity — sanctifier of hateful fraud, —

protection for the slave

holder” (117). “Religious slave holders are the worst” (117) because they thought it was

their duty to

“whip his slaves” (118). While being in the community of religious leaders, Douglass was

subjected to the

“meanest most cruel” (117) of acts of one human being towards another. The slaves

were kept down,

belittled and whipped into submission all under the tenets of Christianity. The Rev.

Weeden, Rev.

Hopkins and Mr. Freeland felt it was not only their right to own slaves, but also their God-

given right to

take these human beings and turn them into hard workers. The imagined acts of

transgression and the

punishments mettled out smacked of Puritanism of the 1600 s. If they, as religious

leaders, were the ideal

citizens of society, then the slaves, who were the chaff of the wheat, must be treated as

such. If the slaves

were not whipped daily, how could they ever be saved from all their imagined sins?

Not only are we allowed a chronological view of Frederick Douglass life, we are

also privy to the

growth of his emotional maturity as he explores the value of becoming a free man, “looked

forward safe

to escape too young to go immediately consoled myself with hope” (86). It is the

gradual realization

that the more Douglass is treated fairly, “deep conviction that slavery would not always be

able to hold me

in its foul embrace” (75), the more he wants to be free and the more inhumanly he is

treated, “raised his

musket aim at his standing victim Demby [a slave shot unjustly] was no more

horror flashed

through every soul upon the plantation” (67) the more he accepts his plight as a slave that

opens up his

major theme. He comes to realize that the slaves lose their personality and identity the

more submissive

and down trodden they become. Unable to think of only protecting their survival, they

begin to believe

they are unworthy of being saved.

As they are awarded more freedoms, the slaves begin to realize that what has been

taken from

them is actually their right to have, “a city slave is almost a freeman” (79). Freedom looks

more and more

precious the closer they are to achieving it until it becomes an obsession and they will fight

to the death to

become freemen.

The literary work the Narrative expresses two main views of women, neither of

which are to be

taken as positive values even in the 1800 s. In a very unfavorable light, Douglass tells the

reader that

slave women were expected to work alongside the men doing the same hard, dirty labor or

they were used

to watch the children when they become, “too old for field labor” (48).

In Narrative, Mr. Covey, “buys one slave for a breeder” (105). The men in

Narrative believe

women are only good for sex and they do not hesitate to use them as such. Another

example is that

Frederick s father was, “whispered my master was my father [Captain Anthony]” (49).

The slave

holder was not above satisfying his sexual urges by the usage of black slaves.

The book was easily digested and powerful yet Douglass softened the tone by not


graphic when he had every right to do so. This was the first publication of the book and it

would be

interesting to see how much “gentler” he was by the third rewrite. Published by the Anti


Committee, it was definitely biased against the slave holder but Douglass seemed to write

fairly of his

experiences especially since he was able to relate both good and bad experiences with his

slave owners.

Douglass words sum it up the best, “You have seen how a man was made a slave; you

shall see how a

slave was made a man.” (107)

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