Реферат на тему Julius Caesar Theme Essay Research Paper Act

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Julius Caesar Theme Essay, Research Paper

Act I This first Act contains only three scenes, but each are important for many

reasons. It begins with two tribunes, Flavius and Murellus, who scold commoners

who parade down the street to celebrate Caesar’s victory over Pompey. The two

tribunes shame the commoners for celebrating the death of one of Rome’s former

leaders, and they depart solemnly. On February 15th the festival of Lupecalia is

celebrated, and Caesar arrives in the city along with Antony and Brutus. A

soothesayer approaches Caesar and tells him to, "Beware the ides of

March". Brutus and Cassius remain and converse with one and other. Cassius

complains that Caesar has become so powerful that even though he once saved

Caesar’s life, he must now bow before him. Meanwhile Caesar remarks to Antony

that Cassius thinks too much, and that such men are dangerous. Later on, Antony

offers Caesar the crown three times, and three times Caesar turns it down. The

people worshiped Caesar even more for turning away from the crown. There are

many details in Act I that to what will happen in the near future. Act II In

this Act, with the help of Brutus, the conspirators come together to seriously

form a plan to kill Caesar. It begins with Brutus in his garden who has made up

his mind that Caesar must be killed because Caesar is abusing his power and is

ascending too far too quickly. The conspirators come to Brutus’s house to

discuss their plan. After they leave, Brutus’s wife Portia begs him to tell her

why he’s been so upset recently by stabbing herself in the leg. Caesar’s wife

Calpurnia had a dream where Caesar is murdered, and she convinces him not to go

to the Senate that morning. However, Decius arrives at that moment and claims

that Caesar would be mocked if he didn’t show up. Decius also sarcastically asks

if the Senate should be dissolved until Calpurnia has a more favorable dream.

Caesar decides to go the Senate and is escorted by the rest of the conspirators

along with Antony. Artemidorus has written a letter to Caesar containing the

names of all the conspirators, and he plans to give it to Caesar who is on his

way to the Senate. The beginning stages of Caesar’s assassination have already

taken place so the final act is inevitable. Act III This Act can be considered

the climax of the play. Caesar is outside of the Senate house with Antony and

all of the conspirators when he sees the soothesayer, and tells him that the

ides of March have come. The soothesayer responds, "Ay Caesar, but not

gone". Next, Artemidorus attempts to give Caesar the letter, but is

thwarted by Decius. Then, Trebonious lured Antony away so that he may not

interfere with the assassination. Caesar decides not to grant Metellus Cimber’s

brother release from banishment which creates an uproar of disapproval from many

of the conspirators. Finally Casca kneels down and says, "Speak hands for

me". They all stab Caesar many times who falls saying, "Et tu,

Brute!" Brutus then gives a short speech of finally receiving peace and

freedom. Antony’s servant then arrives, and tells Brutus that Antony wishes to

meet with and learn why it was necessary to kill Caesar. Antony arrives and

laments the death of Caesar. Brutus tells him that Caesar was destroying the

republic and had to be removed from power. Antony pretends to be convinced, and

shakes the hand of each of the conspirators naming them as he shakes their hand.

Antony asks for permission to take the body to the marketplace, and show it to

the crowd. Brutus decides to give his speech first at the funeral, and allow

Antony to speak afterwards, as long as he speaks positively about the

conspirators which Antony agrees to. Brutus and Cassius tell the plebeians to

follow them to hear why Caesar was murdered. Brutus gives a powerful speech to

public and finally asks them if they want him to commit suicide to which they

reply, "Live Brutus, live!" Antony gives his speech next. He presents

images where Caesar has not been ambitious, and the crowd begins to think that

Caesar was wrongly murdered. Antony then reads Caesar’s will in which Caesar

gives every citizen seventy-five drachmas. This throws the crowd into anger

against all who killed Caesar. Next, Octavius’s servant arrives and tells Antony

that Octavius is waiting for him at Caesar’s house. Cinna the poets was

wandering through the town, and was attacked by a mob who thought that he was

Cinna the conspirator. So this Act was truly the main, climactic Act of the

play. Act IV In this Act Antony, Octavius and Lepidus have banded together in a

counter-conspiracy to destroy the men who killed Caesar.Antony then sends

Lepidus to Caesar’s house to fetch the will. He hopes to somehow reduce the

amount of money that needs to be paid to the beneficiaries.. Antony implies that

he will eventually remove Lepidus from rule, but that they should keep him a

while longer. Brutus has brought his armies to Sardis and set up camp there. A

messenger whom he sent to Cassius informs him that Cassius is not as friendly

anymore. At that moment Cassius’ army arrives. Cassius is upset that Brutus

publicly disgraced a friend of his for taking bribes from the Sardians. Brutus

tells Cassius that he is upset that Cassius refused to send him gold with which

to pay his soldiers. Cassius denies it, and in exasperation pulls out his dagger

and tells Brutus to kill him if he is such a bad person, but Brutus refuses and

they become friends once again. Brutus finally informs Cassius that Portia is

dead. Cassius is surprised by the news and asks how it happened. Brutus tells

him that Portia, left alone in the city after he fled, was upset that Octavius

and Antony had seized control of Rome. She therefore took live embers and

swallowed them, thus killing herself. Brutus tells him not to speak of her

anymore. Brutus and Messala compare letters they have received informing them

that Antony and Octavius are marching towards them from Greece. Messala tells

Brutus that over one hundred senators have been put to death, but Brutus says

his letter only mentioned seventy.Brutus and Cassius must then decide whether to

wait for Antony and Octavius in Sardis or march to meet the opposing army in

Philippi. Cassius would prefer to wait and keep his men fresh, but Brutus thinks

that the enemy is gaining in power every day and therefore needs to be stopped

as soon as possible. Cassius finally agrees with him and leaves for his tent to

go to bed before leaving in the morning. Brutus takes his book and starts

reading, but the ghost of Julius Caesar enters and causes the flame to dim.

Brutus demands to know who has entered the room, and the ghost tells him,

"Thy evil spirit, Brutus". Brutus then asks the ghost why he has come,

and is told that the ghost will see him again at Philippi. The ghost leaves, and

Brutus immediately wakes up everyone in the room. He tells Varrus and Claudio to

go inform Cassius that he should take his army and march on ahead. Act V In this

Act, Antony and Octavious get their revenge. Octavius and Antony, located on a

battlefield in Philippi, have just learned that Brutus and Cassius are marching

to their location. A messenger arrives and tells both generals that the enemy is

so close that they must do something quickly. Brutus and Cassius arrive at the

head of their army. The generals all meet and start to insult each other. Antony

accuses Brutus and Cassius of being "villains," whereas Cassius tells

Brutus that they would not have to listen to Antony now if he had been allowed

to kill him as he originally wanted to. The men refuse to back down and they are

forced to return to their armies and prepare for battle. Cassius then talks to

Brutus and asks him what he will do if they should lose the battle. Brutus

rejects suicide, but also tells Cassius that he will never be dragged through

the street of Rome as a prisoner. The two generals say farewell to one another

and return to their respective armies to prepare for battle. The battle has

started and Brutus gives Messala orders to take to Cassius. He tells Messala to

inform Cassius that he needs to advance faster in order to catch Octavius’ flank

which is not fighting very well. Cassius is upset because he is afraid his men

are running away from the field of battle. He tells Titinius that he personally

killed his standard-bearer who was trying to run away and took up the banner

himself. Titinius informs him that Brutus "gave the word too early"

and that his soldiers quickly started looting the enemy camp once they captured

it. In the meantime, Antony’s army has been able to surround Cassius. Pindarus

arrives and tells Cassius to run further away. Cassius sends Titinius to check

on some soldiers and find out if they are his men or not, and simultaneously

sends Pindarus up a hill to watch and see what happens. Pindarus tells him that

Titinius is captured by the troops. Cassius calls Pindarus back down from the

hill and hands him the sword with which he stabbed Caesar. He tells Pindarus to

take the sword and stab him with it. Pindarus obeys and kills Cassius on the

spot before running away himself. Titinius then picks up Cassius’ sword and

kills himself. Brutus arrives and sees the two dead bodies lying on the ground.

He remarks, "Oh Julius Caesar, thou art mighty yet" (5.3.93). Brutus

quickly recovers from the loss of his confederate and immediately orders the

soldiers to prepare for another battle, this time against Antony. Lucillius

pretends to be Brutus and challenges the soldiers, but he is quickly captured.

The soldiers send for Antony, thinking they have finally captured Brutus. Antony

arrives and recognizes Lucillius and tells his soldiers that although they did

not get Brutus, they still captured a nobleman. He orders his soldiers to

continue fighting. Brutus arrives accompanied by several stranglers from his

defeated army. At the sound of another call to battle, Brutus hastily gets up

and orders his men to flee ahead of him. He keeps Strato with him, and finally

convinces Strato to hold the sword while he impales himself upon it. Antony and

Octavius arrive with their army. They find Brutus dead on the ground and Strato

nearby who informs them how Brutus died. Of all the conspirators only Brutus

really believed that he was killing Caesar to uphold the Roman Republic.

Octavius orders the body to be placed in his tent and gives the order to cease

fighting. He ends the play with the lines, "So call the field to rest, and

let’s away / To part the glories of this happy day". Now all of the

conspirators are dead, and thus ending the play.

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